Military clients have the option, with additional monetary and time implications, to add the following extra components to reach identified training objectives, in consultation with our specialist armed forces training team:
Counter Insurgency – the Petraeus Doctrine
As iterated in U.S. Field Manual No. 3-24 (2007) and its predecessors as described in previous editions including FM 31-21 (1961) and the British Land Operations Volume III Counter Revolutionary Operations, in order to show historical development and the state of doctrine at the time.
Use of Command, Control, Computing and Intelligence techniques in this type of conflict
This type of conflict presents unique challenges to command organisations: sub-units are often called upon to act independently, and the actions of junior ranks can have a huge impact on strategic, media coverage and public opinion. Likely opponents will take full advantage of cyber warfare techniques and social media to dominate the digital terrain. Accurate intelligence is hard to obtain and SIGINT and HUMINT operations assume a new, battle-winning significance.
Application of Human Intelligence, Psyops, and cultural aspects
Thus HUMINT and information warfare strategy and tactics become vital to successful operations, complemented by strenuous efforts to influence and shape enemy, friendly and neutral perceptions of the aims, direction and methods of own forces’ activity. Care must be taken to operate according to established cultural norms in both Western and host nation societies to prevent negative mission outcomes.
Manoeuvre in the desert/mountain environment
Due consideration must be given to operations in this specific kind of terrain – it is sparsely populated, rugged and not infrequently hostile. It requires specialist training and vehicles, and while rotary winged assets can be useful, they are often vulnerable carrying out their assigned tasks.
Special consideration of the application of fires (indirect fire weapons)
Extremes of heat can adversely affect artillery rounds and their flight is subject to barometric conditions. Targets and fall of shot can be observed, but this is not always the case and map barrages may be required. Because of their man-portability, mortars are extremely useful in this environment and may be deployed where other IDF weapons are unable to reach due to unsuitable cross-country terrain or the risky nature of the road network. Ammunition types and fuses should be carefully selected to achieve the desired effects.
Mobility and Counter-Mobility and Survivability in hostile environments
Where likely approach routes are well-known, and may well be the only routes to key terrain on foot, these will be covered by IEDs, mines and multiple well-protected firing points for small arms and heavy weapons, often embedded in mountainsides and cliff faces with covered entry and exit routes. Rocky desert terrain is notoriously resistant to the construction of fighting positions and the traditional sangar does not offer overhead protection from IDF. Thus, combat engineering is vital both in attack and defence for obstacle construction, neutralisation and clearance, and these assets are ideally organic to the units involved.
Air Assets including fixed-wing, helo and UAV systems
Airpower is something of a two-edged sword – while it is of much use in a ‘show of force’ to awe an opponent who is unfamiliar with the noise and vibration associated with modern aircraft, even modern PGMs are of limited effectiveness against small, rapidly moving or well-camouflaged targets. Area bombardment from the air risks causing loss of life to innocent civilians and where an opponent chooses to live and fight among the population, who may well be family members or part of a sympathetic tribal group, the indiscriminate use of air assets can defeat the whole purpose of the campaign and create, not unreasonably, resentment and hostility thereby providing a recruitment vehicle, motivated by revenge. Rotary wing aircraft are hard to operate at high altitude and very vulnerable to ground fire, especially where the LZ is at a lower altitude than defending troops. On the other hand, unmanned vehicles provide unparalleled reconnaissance data, but they too are vulnerable on occasions to ground fire.
Combat Service Support in difficult terrain
Operating in hostile environments poses numerous challenges to effective resupply of ammunition, water and rations. Age-old techniques, such as the use of mules and other pack animals is often appropriate, where wheeled vehicles are unable to pass. Casualty evacuation can be problematic where rotary wing assets are unable to fly, or where hospital facilities lie far to the rear of the area of operations.